How much energy does it cost to produce, process and transport bio-oil, in other words, what is the energy mass balance, and in the end, isn't more fuel used than produced?

Because of the high density of bio-oil, the energy mass balance is certainly positive, and I will attempt to illustrate this below, supported by a number of core figures.

We not only process but also transport the bio-oil by water and road ourselves, these are reality-based numbers. 

 
Transportation by truck (27 ton load):
approximately 1.03 kg fuel per ton of transported oil across a distance of 100 km
 
Transportation by barge (1200 tons):
approximately 0.50 kg fuel per ton of transported oil across a distance of 100 km
 
Transportation by sea vessel “short sea shipping" (1500 tons):
approximately 0.60 kg fuel per ton of transported oil across a distance of 100 km
(1.12 kg fuel per ton of transported oil across a distance of 100 nautical miles) 
 
Transportation with sea vessel “transatlantically” (50,000 ton load):
approximately 0.28 kg fuel per ton of transported oil across a distance of 100 nautical miles.
 
 
Processing vegetable oils in order to make them suitable for use as biofuel.
approximately 3.6 kg fuel per ton of produced bio-oil.
 
Heating oil (from 30 to 60°C) in order to increase viscosity costs approximately 3 kg fuel per ton of heated bio-oil.
 
 
Example 1
Vegetable oil that is imported transatlantically and specifically cultivated for energy production in the Netherlands.
 
Energy costs (fossil fuels) per ton of bio-oil
 
Transportation, 300 km, per truck from the plantation to the processing location near a sea port: 3 x 1.03 = 3.09 kg
Heating from 30 to 60°C: 3 kg
Processing this oil to make it suitable for use as biofuel: 3.6 kg
Transatlantic transportation 10,000 nautical miles: 28 kg
Heating from 30 to 60°C: 3kg
Barge 400 km to power station: 4 x 0.50 =2 kg 
 
Total of fuel consumption to deliver 1 ton of bio-oil (as specified) to the end user: 42.6 kg or 4.26 % of the bio-oil delivered.
 
 
Example 2
Vegetable oil that is released as by-product from the oil and oil seed processing industries in Europe, delivered for energy production in Sweden.
 
Energy costs (fossil fuels) per ton of bio-oil
 
Transportation, 400 km, by truck from the factory to the processing location: 4 x 1.03 = 4.12 kg
Heating from 30 to 60°C:  3 kg
Processing this oil to make it suitable for use as biofuel: 3.6 kg
Barge 100 km to sea port:  1 x 0.50 = 0.50 kg
Transportation by sea vessel “short sea shipping" 800 km: 8 x 0.60 = 4 kg
Barge 200 km to power station: 2 x 0.50 = 1.00 kg
Total of fuel consumption to deliver 1 ton of bio-oil (as specified) to the end user: 16.2 kg or 1.6% % of the bio-oil delivered.

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Van der Kooy Pijnacker (Bio-fuel information)